Covid 19 is getting into blood and is making people shiver even in dreams. Today people are getting terrified with the disease and its consequences. But certain medical reports have revealed that people after recovery from infection with the virus are getting their immune cells sensitized to the viral infection. The immune cells and the proteins circulate into the body and the antibodies released against the viral infection are getting retained into the immune system memory. The immune cells and the proteins are circulating into the body with generating the power of recognizing and killing the pathogens when encountered again. They are getting protected against the disease and are reducing the severity of illness.
Moving ahead to the long term immunity, the immune cells bear components that have been found in people who are already recovered from SARS-CoV-2 with the virus causing COVID-19. But the most important thing is still there are certain concerns relating to it are which are raised. As per the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC), there are more than 9 million people confirmed with the COVID-19 cases. For the reason scientists have focused more on uncovering the response of immune system to SARS-CoV-2 that is being caused by the covid 19 combating it successfully. A critical indicator of sufficient immunity to any viral illness is the presence of virus specific antibodies. In SARS-CoV-2, conflicting evidences exists to whether or not there is any kind of long term protection from t he virus after recovery.
Further researchers found that the improved antibodies are produced by the immune cells that have kept evolving, apparently due to the continued exposure to the remnants of the virus hidden in the gut tissue. Based on the findings, the researchers suspect that when the recovered patients next encounter the virus, the response would be both faster and are more effective and preventing re- infection.
Indeed the news is quite exciting and based on these the researchers suspect that when the recovered patients next encounter the virus, the response would go faster and would be more effective, preventing re- infection. The kind of immune response could potentially provide with protection for quite some time with enabling the body to mount with a rapid and effective response to the virus on re exposure. Even the researchers of molecular immunology have been tracking and characterizing antibody response in Covid-19 patients since the early days of pandemic.
The long lasting immunity:-
Antibodies that are created in response to infection linger in the blood plasma for weeks and months. But their level does drop significantly from time to time. The immune system has a more efficient way of dealing with the pathogens, instead it also produces antibodies all the time. This would create memory B cells which recognize the pathogen and would quickly unleash the new round of antibodies when they encounter them for second time.
Above all, it does depend on the memory how it works and that depends on pathogenic attack on it. for understanding the case with the SAES-CoV-2, the researchers studied that the antibody responses of individuals after certain time of infection would expect the release of antibodies which are still detectable at point. The patient’s memory B cells specifically those that are producing antibodies against SARS CoV-2. This did not decline in number and even slightly increase in some cases. The overall number of memory B cells that produces antibodies attacking the cells heel of the virus which is known as the receptor binding domain.
The viral stowaways:-
Taking a close look to the memory B cells, it has revealed that the cells have gone through numerous rounds of mutations even after the infection is resolved and that has resulted the antibodies they produced were much more effective than the originals. After several experimentations its shown that the new set of antibodies were better able to latch on tightly to the virus and can recognize even the mutated version of it. Surprisingly, it’s seen that the memory cells had kept evolving during the time. This often happens in the case of chronic infections. Here the virus lingers in the body but it’s also seen in case of sars-CoV-2 which was expected to be tuff indeed.
The SARS-CoV 2 virus replicate in certain cells in the lungs, upper throat and small intestine and the residual viral particles hiding within these tissues would be driving the evolution of memory cells.
Components of immunity:-
The various components of immunity protection includes:-
- Antibodies that are proteins circulating in the blood and recognizing the foreign substances like viruses and neutralizing them.
- The Helper T cells helping to recognize the pathogens.
- The killer T cells to kill the pathogens.
- The B cells making new antibodies when the body is in need of them.
People recovering from COVID-19 have been found to have all the four components. However the specific about it is for the immune response and how long the immunity lasts does is not still clear. Since the time infection ranged from six days after the symptom onset to eight months later. More than 40 participants have been recovered for more than six months before the study. About 50 people provided blood samples at more than one time after the infection. The research process is found durable with immune responses in the majority of people studied. Antibodies against the spike protein of SARS-CoV 2 Which the virus uses to get inside the cells were found in 98% of participants one month after the symptoms onset. With reference to previous studies, the number of antibodies ranged widely between individuals. But promisingly there levels remained stable over time then declining only modestly at 6 to 8 months after infection. During the process, virus specific B cells increased over time. People had more memory B cells six months after the symptom onset than at one month afterwards. Although the number of these cells appeared to reach a hike and then a down fall after few months. But the level didn’t decline over the period studied.